Scholarly Articles on Mites

May 8, 2019

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This is a curated set of references from recent scholarship on mites in rabbits. For articles on behavior, welfare, and the rabbit human relationship, visit this page. For additional articles on rabbit health, please visit this page.

Editor’s Note: We understand that many of these articles are done in the context of biomedical research laboratories and that the conditions are not sufficient to satisfy the well-being requirements of a group like House Rabbit Society. Although we do  not endorse such studies, we elected to include these studies to ensure that the most recent data on these issues are available to our readers.

 

Can J Comp Med Vet Sci. 1947 May;11(5):144. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20240357
Dimethyl phthalate for the treatment of mange in rabbits caused by Notoedres cati var. cuniculi (Gerlach 1857).
OSBORNE HG.
[NO ABSTRACT]

J Parasitol. 1971 Apr;57(2):438-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5553458
Listrophorus gibbus (Acarina: listrophoridae). An unusual parasitic mite from laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United States.
Weisbroth SH, Scher S.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Vet Rec. 1972 Apr 29;90(18):512. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5049999
Possible host specificity of Cheyletiella mites.
Gething AM, Walton GS.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Parasitology. 1972 Apr;64(2):321-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5018483
The distribution and abundance of the ectoparasites of the wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in New South Wales, Australia.
Williams RT.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Br Vet J. 1972 Sep;128(9):51-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5073264
In vitro acaricidal activity of Ciodrin and Rabond against Psoroptes cuniculi, the ear mange mite of the rabbit.
Pandey VS.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Angew Parasitol. 1973 Nov;14(4):199-207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4775721
[The effect of experimental Psoroptes cuniculi infection on thermoregulation in rabbits. I. Studies in the thermoneutral zone].
Ribbeck R, Steinhardt M.
[Article in German]

Angew Parasitol. 1974 Jun;15(2):67-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4849187
[Metric studies and determination of the survival time in vitro of 2 Psoroptes cuniculi strains of domestic rabbits].
Ribbeck R, Gehrt M.
[Article in German]

J Parasitol. 1976 Feb;62(1):125. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1255359
Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Megnin), a parasitic mite causing mange in the domestic rabbit.
Clark JD, Ah HS.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Lab Anim Sci. 1976 Oct;26(5):758-61. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/979142
A survey of fur mites in domestic rabbits.
Flatt RE, Wiemers J.
Abstract
A survey of six commercial rabbit colonies was conducted to determine the prevalence of the mite Cheyletiella parasitvorax. This mite was present in all six colonies, and 43.2% of 220 rabbits examined were infested. Listrophorus gibbus, reported only once previously in domestic rabbits in the United States, was found in four of the six colonies, and in 7.3% of the 220 rabbits examined. Non-parasitic mites were found in 3.2% of the samples. Over 50% of the rabbits examined had inapparent mite infestations.

Lab Anim Sci. 1976 Oct;26(5):801-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/979146
Facial alopecia in the rabbit associated with Cheyletiella parasitivorax.
Cloyd GG, Moorhead DP.
Abstract
A facial dermatitis characterized by alopecia over the frontal area with varying degrees of erythema and scale formation was observed in 46 newly arrived New Zealand White rabbits within a 5-month period. The clinical history, nature of the lesion, and laboratory findings indicated that the mite Cheyletiella parasitivorax was the most likely cause of the dermatitis.

J Med Entomol. 1976 Dec 8;13(3):315-27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1011235
Cheyletiella (Acari: Cheyletiellidae) of dog, cat and domesticated rabbit, a review.
Bronswijk JE, De Kreek EJ.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 1978 Jul 1;103(13):695-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/663927
[Listrophorus gibbus, a fur mite in domestic rabbits (author’s translation)].
[Article in Dutch]
de Vos JP, Dorrestein GM.
Abstract
A case of infection with the fur mite of domestic rabbits, Listrophorus gibbus, is reported. Possible methods of treatment of individual rabbits as well as of colonies of rabbits are reviewed. The presence of Listrophorus gibbus in conjunction with Cheyletiella parasitivorax is also discussed.

Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 1979 Feb;74(2):218-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/255015
Ear-mite infestation in a rabbit.
Saunders EB.
[NO ABSTRACT]

N Z Vet J. 1984 Jan-Feb;32(1-2):9-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16031005
Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.
Jones JM.
Abstract
A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.

J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 Oct;11(4 Pt 1):594-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6436342
Host-seeking behavior of Sarcoptes scabiei.
Arlian LG, Runyan RA, Sorlie LB, Estes SA.
Abstract
Sarcoptes scabiei mites perceive specific host stimuli and are attracted to the host. Mites dislodged from the host respond to both host odor and a thermal stimulus and seek its source. The response to thermal and host odor stimuli are independent. Mites in close proximity to the body respond to both stimuli and show no preference for either. At greater distances from the host, odor is the more important stimulus.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986 Aug;78(2):293-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2426321
Cross-reactivity between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and the mange mites Psoroptes cuniculi and P. ovis. I. Demonstration of antibodies to the house dust mite allergen Dpt 12 in sera from P. cuniculi-infested rabbits.
Stewart GA, Fisher WF.
Abstract
The cross-reactivity of the mange mites Psoroptes cuniculi (PC) and Psoroptes ovis (PO) antigens with the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) antigens has been studied. Cross-reactivity between mange mite and house dust mite antigens was demonstrated by both ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis by use of a sheep anti-DP antiserum. Both PC and PO were demonstrated to contain eight cross-reacting antigens. Sera from rabbits infested with PC were demonstrated to produce antibodies to the homologous immunogen, to PO antigens, and to DP antigens. Of the seven sera from infested rabbits tested, four were demonstrated to produce a strong antibody response to a major DP antigen Dpt 12, and two were demonstrated to produce a weak response that was judged empirically by double-diffusion analysis. Two sera were judged to react with the DP lipoprotein, Dpt 4. Sera from control rabbits did not demonstrate reactivity with any extract tested. Despite the detection of anti-Dpt 12 antibodies, however, an antigen corresponding to Dpt 12 was not detected in either PC or PO extracts. The findings that mange mite-infested rabbits produce antibodies that recognize DP antigens probably explain previous observations in which it was demonstrated that commercially obtained rabbit anti-immunoglobulin antisera contain anti-DP antibodies, a finding that suggests caution in the use of such reagents in studies designed to measure antibody responses to DP allergens.

J Parasitol. 1987 Oct;73(5):901-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2443631
The feeding behaviour of Psoroptes spp. mites on rabbits and sheep.
Rafferty DE, Gray JS.
Abstract
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the mouthparts of Psoroptes cuniculi from rabbits and P. ovis from sheep established that they are identical in morphology and are adapted for surface feeding rather than piercing the epidermis. Haemoglobin was found in both P. cuniculi and P. ovis on rabbits but not in P. ovis on sheep and it is concluded that the haemoglobin is derived from small haemorrhages on the surface of inflamed rabbit skin. This inflammation is caused by the deposition of antigenic material on the skin which is abraded by the mite mouthparts. The mites feed on the resulting exudate and on other surface material. An immunofluorescent assay revealed that the 2 mite species are antigenically similar.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1988 Sep;18(5):1077-91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3055647
Pruritus in rabbits, rodents, and ferrets.
Timm KI.
Abstract
This article attempts to cover the more specific pruritic problems encountered in rabbits, rodents, and ferrets. There are certainly other causes of pruritus in these animals. Dermatophytes in guinea pigs are not reported to be pruritic, but because they are pruritic in other species, they should be considered in a differential diagnosis. A cryptococcal dermatitis in a guinea pig that was pruritic has been reported. Although mites were not seen on scraping, the animal was treated for sarcoptid mites and apparently the pruritus lessened. Because the cryptococcis was still present, it is questionable whether it was causing the pruritus. Pruritic ulcerative dermatitis over the back and shoulders has been seen in some lines of rats. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from many of the lesions. Clipping the toenails on the feet helped lessen the severity of the lesions. Syphacia spp. have been reported in rats, gerbils, and hamsters and should be considered if there is perineal pruritus. MOBS, or “move over buddy syndrome,” is seen especially in mice and may be seen in hamsters, gerbils, and rats that are overcrowded or stressed. The lesions are actually bite wounds that have been inflicted around the tail base and the perineum and on the tail, but these wounds can be mistaken for self-inflicted trauma from pruritus. All of the recommended treatments are extralabel, and clients should be informed of this. I have observed a guinea pig become lethargic and anorexic after only one application of a flea powder approved for use in cats. Brushing most of the powder off and offering dandelion greens to stimulate appetite helped. The second dusting was done with the same flea powder diluted with baby powder. Whenever these animals are dipped, it is important to let them dry in a warm, draft-free area. Again, it is important to be aware that the ratio of surface area to body weight is much higher in these small animals than in the species routinely seen in veterinary practice especially to prevent toxicoses from topically applied medications and iatrogenic hypothermia or hyperthermia.

Br Vet J. 1989 Jan-Feb;145(1):54-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2920276
Effect of ivermectin on the ear mange mite, Psoroptes cuniculi, of rabbits.
Pandey VS.
Abstract
Rabbits, naturally infected with ear mange mite, Psoroptes cuniculi, were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of ivermectin at 200 micrograms or 400 micrograms/kg of body weight. The effect of the drug was evaluated clinically and parasitologically over 4 weeks. The animals in both groups became negative for mites 6 days after treatment and remained so until the end of trial. The ear lesions disappeared in both groups. However, the regression of lesions was faster in rabbits administered 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin.

Bol Chil Parasitol. 1990 Jan-Jun;45(1-2):29-31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2152353
[Ectoparasites of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the Juan Fernández archipelago].
[Article in Spanish]
Acevedo P.
Abstract
Cheyletiella parasitovorax, Haemodipsus sp. and Listrophorus sp. are described in 137 rabbits from Juan Fernández Islands examined during 1989. The occurrence of Haemodipsus sp. and Listrophorus sp. represents two new parasite records for Chile.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990 Apr 1;196(7):1139-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2329086
Use of ivermectin for treatment of ear mite infestation in rabbits.
Curtis SK, Housley R, Brooks DL.
Abstract
Ivermectin was used to treat ear mite infestation in 480 rabbits in 2 commercial rabbitries. Ivermectin (cattle formulation) injected sc at a dosage of 400 to 440 micrograms/kg of body weight repeated in 18 days appeared to be safe and effective in reducing the prevalence of ear mites in naturally infested rabbits.

Lab Anim Sci. 1990 Jul;40(4):406-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2166870
Eradication of ear mites from naturally infested conventional research rabbits using ivermectin.
Curtis SK, Brooks DL.
Abstract
Rabbits naturally infested with ear mites were treated with ivermectin injection for cattle, subcutaneously at the rate of 400 mcg/kg; which was repeated in 15 to 17 days. Rabbits treated as described and housed in a conventional vivarium environment were found to be free of mites during a subsequent 33 to 139 day observation period. Side effects were minimal and associated with occasional transient discomfort at the injection site. Ivermectin appears to be safe and effective for treating rabbits with ear mites. The prospects of eradicating mites from infested rabbit colonies using this method of treatment is promising.

Am J Vet Res. 1992 Jan;53(1):105-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1539901
Effect of ivermectin on the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in naturally infested rabbits.
Bowman DD, Fogelson ML, Carbone LG.
Abstract
We examined the efficacy of ivermectin in the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. The study involved 40 female and 35 male rabbits that were known to be naturally infested with ear mites. After a period of acclimation to the animal care facilities, the rabbits were ranked on the visual appearance of any ear lesion and the number of mites on glycerin-dipped ear swabs. The rabbits were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups; vehicle only (group 1), 50 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight (group 2), 100 micrograms of ivermectin/kg (group 3) and 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg (group 4). The rabbits were treated by SC injections on day 0 and day 14 of the trial; thus, the total dose of ivermectin given to groups 1 through 4, was 0, 100, 200, or 400 micrograms/kg, respectively. The study ended 2 weeks after the last treatment. Ear lesions of the treated rabbits improved significantly (P less than 0.001). By 28 days after the first treatment, the mean number of mites on the ear swabs (both ears) was 57.5 for untreated rabbits and 9.1, 0.5, and 2.5, respectively, for rabbits in groups 2, 3, and 4. The mean number of mites recovered from the ears of the untreated rabbits at necropsy was 24,297. For groups 2, 3, and 4, the mean number of mites recovered from the ears was 5,352, 96, and 96, respectively. The efficacy of treatment with a total dose of 100 micrograms/kg was 77.96%, with 200 micrograms/kg was 99.61%, and for 400 micrograms/kg was 99.61%.

Trop Anim Health Prod. 1992 May;24(2):121-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1305335
Louse and mite infestation in domestic animals in northern Nigeria.
George JB, Otobo S, Ogunleye J, Adediminiyi B.
Abstract
Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17.3%) and 247 (31.1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded were Linognathus vituli (66.7%) on cattle, L. ovillus (83.3%) on sheep, Haematopinus suis (100%) on pigs and Menacanthus stramineus (54.5%) on poultry. Other lice species recorded included Haematopinus bovis and Solenopotes capillatus on cattle, Damalinia ovis on sheep, Linognathus stenopsis and Menacanthus stramineus on goats, Goniocotes sp. on a horse, Linognathus setosus and Menacanthus stramineus on dogs, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis, Menopon gallinae and Chelopistes meleagrides on poultry. The most common mite species were Demodex folliculorum on cattle (96.9%) and on dogs (80.8%), Sarcoptes scabiei on pigs (100%) and Notoedres cati (80.3%) on rabbits. Other mite species included Psoroptes communis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ornithonyssus gallinae and Dermanyssus gallinae.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Nov;34(3-4):325-36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1455687
Ivermectin: its effect on the immune system of rabbits and rats infested with ectoparasites.
Uhlír J, Volf P.
Abstract
The influence of subcutaneously administered ivermectin on the specific immune response was studied in rabbits infested with mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) and in rats infested with lice (Polyplax spinulosa). A pronounced specific antibody activity and a change in immunoblotting pattern was observed in rabbits after the ivermectin treatment. However, in rats the antibody activity decreased and the profile of specific antibodies, tested by immunoblotting, remained the same as before the treatment. The specific immune response in rabbits artificially immunized with whole-body Psoroptes cuniculi extract was not affected by ivermectin. It was concluded that ivermectin has no direct effect on the immune response of rabbits and rats and that the enhanced immune response in the mite-infested rabbits was caused by the massive release of antigens associated with the synchronous death of the mites.

Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1992;39(4):375-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1291453
Immunization of rabbits with antigens from Psoroptes cuniculi, the rabbit scab mite.
Uhlír J.
Abstract
Rabbits immunized with the whole body extract of Psoroptes cuniculi (Delafond, 1859) developed partial immunity to the infestation with this mite. These rabbits manifested P. cuniculi antigen-induced cell response and a high level of specific serum antibody after the immunization. Electrophoretic separation of the mite extract followed by immunostaining with various sera revealed differences between artificially immunized and naturally infested rabbits to most of the P. cuniculi antigens. However, the specific antibody pattern, that was developed by the immunized rabbits, was not changed after these rabbits were infested with the mites.

Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1994;41(3):223-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7883255
Serum antibody profiles of Sarcoptes scabiei infested or immunized rabbits.
Morgan MS, Arlian LG.
Abstract
The circulating antibody profiles of rabbits infected or immunized with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis were compared. Crossed immuno-electrophoretic analysis showed that infested hosts produced serum antibody to 12 proteins (antigens) in an extract made from sarcoptic mite bodies. In contrast, rabbits immunized with an extract made from mite bodies produced antibody to 20 Sarcoptes proteins (antigens). SDS-PAGE/immunoblot analysis revealed that serum from immunized rabbits contained antibodies that bound strongly to proteins of 25 and 39-52 kD that were only barely visualized by antibodies in serum from infested rabbits.

Vet Rec. 1994 Apr 2;134(14):359-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8017022
Rabbit mite infestation.
Yeatts JW.
Abstract
Cheyletid mite infection in laboratory rabbits.

Parasite. 1996 Mar;3(1):87-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8731763
Therapeutic trial of ivermectin against Notoedres cati var. cuniculi infection in rabbits.
Isingla LD, Juyal PD, Gupta PP.
Abstract
Effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin against natural infection of Notoedres cati var. cuniculi mange in rabbits was evaluated in twenty rabbits which showed typical symptoms of notoedric mange and were randomly divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 15 rabbits treated with single s/c injection of ivermectin (Ivomec, Dynamic Pharmacals, Bombay). In group II, five infected untreated rabbits were kept as control. Daily observations of clinical improvement and on the basis of examination of skin scrapings on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 post treatment were done. Complete visual shedding of lesions was seen on day 6 after treatment and skin scrapping were found negative for mites after 7th day of treatment till the end of experiment. Histopathologically mites were present in stratum corneum and many were noticed in the burrows in epidermis. Marked hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia and acantholysis along with ballooning degeneration of epithelial cells of epidermis were seen.

Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Jul;11(3):300-2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9330264
Therapeutic efficacy of linalool for the topical treatment of parasitic otitis caused by Psoroptes cuniculi in the rabbit and in the goat.
Perrucci S, Cioni PL, Cascella A, Macchioni F.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Vet Rec. 1998 Jan 3;142(1):20-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9460219
Diagnosis and prevalence of Leporacarus gibbus in the fur of domestic rabbits in the UK.
Kirwan AP, Middleton B, McGarry JW.
[NO ABSTRACT]

J Small Anim Pract. 1998 Feb;39(2):86-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9513889
Ectopic Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in a pet rabbit.
Cutler SL.
Abstract
A case of Psoroptes cuniculi infestation of the ears and body of a pet rabbit, with severe lesions on the skin of the caudoventral abdomen, is reported. Treatment with ivermectin injection followed by fipronil application appeared to be safe and was successful in eliminating infection.

Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 1998 Jul;37(4):73-75. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12456150
Rabbit Fur Mite (Listrophorus gibbus) Infestation of New Zealand White Rabbits.
Niekrasz MA, Curl JL, Curl JS.
Abstract
The prevalence of Listrophorus gibbus infestation in seven groups of New Zealand White female rabbits that were purchased from the same source was determined by microscopic examination of hair tufts collected from affected rabbits. Thirtynine of 52 (75%) rabbits were infested, although there was variation in the degree of infestation for each group (ranging from 0 to 100%). The infestation did not spread to other rabbits that had been housed in the same room for 72 h. Infested rabbits were treated with a commercially available carbamate-based acaricide, which effectively eliminated infestation with one application ( 3 groups) or two applications at a 5 to 7-day interval (4 groups). Cross-infestation was prevented by use of strict isolation, and eradication was easily accomplished with the use of available acaricides.

Int J Parasitol. 1998 Nov;28(11):1713-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9846608
Genetic evidence suggests that Psoroptes isolates of different phenotypes, hosts and geographic origins are conspecific.
Zahler M, Essig A, Gothe R, Rinder H.
Abstract
The second internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene was characterised in 15 Psoroptes isolates collected from the ears or bodies of rabbits, goats, sheep and cattle originating from four continents. Morphologically, the isolates were differentiated as Psoroptes cuniculi, Psoroptes ovis and Psoroptes cervinus. Genotypically, the isolates were highly homogeneous, except for the existence of different rDNA classes. In view of previous phenotypic data, a possible conspecificity of these species is proposed.

J Small Anim Pract. 1999 May;40(5):220-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10385865
Leporacarus gibbus and Spilopsyllus cuniculi infestation in a pet rabbit.
Pinter L.
Abstract
A one-year-old male, chequered giant rabbit had a simultaneous infestation with both Leporacarus gibbus and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Recurrent episodes of mild to severe pruritus had been noted over a period of two months. On clinical examination, partial alopecia and slightly erythematous skin with flea faeces was evident, although microscopic and cultural examinations of skin scrapings were negative for fungi. Parasitological examination, including adhesive tape strips of the rabbit’s skin and fur, revealed L gibbus surface dwelling mites and the rabbit flea S cuniculi. The rabbit was successfully treated against both parasites with topical pyrethrin applied three times over a three-week period, and the clinical signs resolved in four weeks.

Vet Parasitol. 1999 Jun 30;83(3-4):231-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10423005
Immunological control of scab mites: digestive enzymes as candidate compounds.
Nisbet AJ, Billingsley PF.
Abstract
Phosphatases, C4 and C8 esterases, leucine and valine aminopeptidases, n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase were active in extracts of scab mites (Psoroptes spp.) raised on sheep or rabbits. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were not detected. Haemoglobin was hydrolysed by a detergent-soluble fraction of the mite extracts in a pH-dependent fashion with an optimum of pH 3-5. Acid proteinase activity was greater in mites raised on rabbits than in those raised on sheep. Inhibitors of cysteine, serine and metallo-proteinases failed to inhibit the hydrolysis of H-Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-Phe(NO2)Arg-Leu-OH while pepstatin A, a specific inhibitor of aspartic proteinases, totally inhibited its hydrolysis at a concentration of 1 nM.

Hautarzt. 1999 Sep;50(9):621-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10501677
[Farm animals as disease vectors of parasitic epizoonoses and zoophilic dermatophytes and their importance in dermatology].
[Article in German]
Beck W.
Abstract
Different pest arthropods and dermatophytes occurring primarily in farm animals may be transmissible to man and produce human dermatoses. The movement and cutaneous penetration habits of external parasites often cause crusted papules, severe itching and dermatitis or may damage their hosts by blood-sucking or by sensitizing them to their saliva. Furthermore different dermatophytes should be considered a possible cause of human skin lesions. Farm animals (cattle, pig, poultry, and rabbit) can transmit external parasites (ticks: Ixodes ricinus, Argas reflexus; fleas: Ceratophyllus gallinae, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, and mites: Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, Dermanyssus gallinae, Cheyletiella parasitovorax), and dermatophytes (Trichophyton sp., and Microsporum sp.). People who have close contact to infested farm animals are more often exposed to epizoonotic infections. Certain professions, such as farmers, and veterinarians, are especially vulnerable.

Vet Parasitol. 1991 Nov;40(3-4):325-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1788939
Humoral and cellular immune response of rabbits to Psoroptes cuniculi, the rabbit scab mite.
Uhlír J.
Abstract
Rabbits infested for the first time with Psoroptes cuniculi (Group A) and heavily infested ones with unknown aetiology (Group B) were examined for specific serum antibody activity and responsiveness of their peripheral blood lymphocytes by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lymphocyte transformation assay methods. These parameters were examined after treatment with ivermectin and after subsequent challenge infestation with P. cuniculi. Group A rabbits developed a small number of mite-caused lesions, and exhibited a significant P. cuniculi antigen-induced T cell response and a high level of specific serum antibody. However, both lymphocyte responsiveness and antibody production were observed to be suppressed in Group B rabbits that were highly susceptible to P. cuniculi.

Vet Rec. 1992 Jan 25;130(4):71-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1553807
Clinical and pharmacological properties of ivermectin in rabbits and guinea pigs.
McKellar QA, Midgley DM, Galbraith EA, Scott EW, Bradley A.
Abstract
When 400 micrograms ivermectin/kg was administered subcutaneously to rabbits infected with the ear mite Psoroptes cuniculi it significantly reduced the clinical score, and when 500 micrograms ivermectin/kg was administered subcutaneously to guinea pigs with mange due to Trixacaurus caviae it resulted in a clinical cure. In rabbits a subcutaneous dose of 400 micrograms/kg produced high and sustained concentrations of ivermectin in the tissues and body fluids for at least 13 days and its rate of depletion from tissues was similar to that observed in sheep and rats. The mean (+/- sem) maximum concentration in plasma was 42.0 +/- 9.7 ng/ml 37.2 +/- 5.0 hours after administration and the area under the concentration-time curve was 3543 +/- 580 ng/ml hours. After the administration of 500 micrograms ivermectin/kg to guinea pigs orally, subcutaneously or topically the drug could be detected in the plasma only after subcutaneous administration. The mean concentration 72 hours after its administration to four guinea pigs was 0.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml.

Parasitol Res. 1997;83(2):203-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9039705
Efficacy of some pyrethroids against a strain of the rabbit ear mite (Psoroptes cuniculi): an unusual cross-resistance pattern.
Pap L, Sárközy P, Farkas R, Bleicher E, Szegö A.
Abstract
An in vitro immersion bioassay was used to compare the efficacy of selected pyrethroids against a deltamethrin-resistant strain of rabbit ear mite (Psoroptes cuniculi). A lack of cross-resistance between bromo (deltamethrin) and chloro analogues (cypermethrin) of alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-dihalovinyl-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate was detected. Whereas deltamethrin proved to be inactive (48-h mortality 21.9% at 1000 mg/kg), each cypermethrin isomer mixture tested, including alpha-cypermethrin [IR(cis) alpha S + 1 S (cis) alpha R] and theta-cypermethrin [1R(trans) alpha S + 1 S (trans) alpha R] and their mixture at a ratio of 4/6, beta-cypermethrin, showed high efficiency (48-h mortality > or = 95% at 1000 mg/kg).

Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2000 Oct;127(10):826-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11060386
[Cheyletiella dermatitis: an uncommon cause of vesiculobullous eruption].
[Article in French]
Tsianakas P, Polack B, Pinquier L, Levy Klotz B, Prost-Squarcioni C.
Abstract
Species of Cheyletiella mites are parasites hosted by dogs, cats and rabbits. In humans, they cause a dermatosis not well known by dermatologists. We report a case of an unusual, purely vesiculobullous eruption due to Cheyletiella blakei acquired from an infected cat. A 76-year-old woman presented a very pruritic eruption of vesicles and bullous lesions located on the trunk and external areas of the arms. Biopsy showed dermoepidermal cleavage and polynuclear infiltrate with prominent eosinophils, consistent with the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. We suspected a Cheyletiella dermatitis due to the aspect and distribution of the elementary lesions and the fact that prior to the eruption the patient had acquired a cat that sometimes slept in her bed. The diagnosis was confirmed by a veterinary examination and isolation of Cheyletiella blakei from the cat’s skin. The cat was treated successfully with ivermectin, while the household was disinfected with permethrin. A treatment with benzyl benzoate (Ascabiol) resolved all the patient’s symptoms. This case is particularly interesting due to the purely vesiculobullous pattern of the rash and by the difficulty and considerable delay of diagnosis. Patients who have recently acquired a cat or dog before developing a pruritic dermatosis may indeed have cheyletiellosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Jan;68(1):54-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12556149
Identification of a homologue of a house dust mite allergen in a cDNA library from Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis and evaluation of its vaccine potential in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. canis model.
Harumal P, Morgan M, Walton SF, Holt DC, Rode J, Arlian LG, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ.
Abstract
Sarcoptes scabiei (“itch mite”) causes scabies, a disease of considerable human and veterinary significance. Little work has been done at the molecular level because of the difficulty of obtaining mites. We have used mites in skin from the bedding of crusted scabies patients for the construction of a library of 10(5) cDNAs from S. scabiei var. hominis cloned in the vector pGEX4T-2. We describe the isolation by immunoscreening of 2 clones, one of which (Ssagl) is homologous to and cross-reactive with the house dust mite Euroglyphus maynei allergen M-177, an apolipoprotein from hemolymph. Immunohistochemistry revealed that it is located around the internal organs and cuticle of the mite and in eggs. Although it was not found to be protective in a challenge trial, the rabbits did not exhibit typical crust characteristics. This work shows that it is now possible to conduct such challenge trials with cloned scabies antigens.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Aug 1;223(3):322-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12906226
Efficacy and safety of topical administration of selamectin for treatment of ear mite infestation in rabbits.
McTier TL, Hair JA, Walstrom DJ, Thompson L.
Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical administration of selamectin in rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi. Randomized controlled trial. 48 mixed-breed domestic rabbits with active P. cuniculi mite populations and clinical ear lesions. Rabbits were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatment groups. On day 0, rabbits in groups 1 and 2 were given vehicle, rabbits in groups 3 and 4 were given selamectin at a dose of 6 mg/kg (2.7 mg/lb), and rabbits in groups 5 and 6 were given selamectin at a dose of 18 mg/kg (8.2 mg/lb). On day 28, rabbits in groups 2, 4, and 6 were given a second dose of vehicle or selamectin. Otoscopic examinations were performed and ear lesion size was measured weekly for 8 weeks. Quantitative viable mite counts were performed on day 56. On days 7 through 56, lesion sizes for all selamectin-treated groups were significantly lower than sizes for control groups; there were no significant differences in lesion sizes among selamectin-treated groups. All rabbits in the 2 control groups had viable adult P. cuniculi mites for the duration of the study, as determined by otoscopic examination, whereas all rabbits in the 4 selamectin-treated groups were free from P. cuniculi mites on days 7 through 56. No adverse reactions associated with selamectin treatment were observed. Results suggest that topical application of selamectin at a dose of 6 or 18 mg/kg can completely eliminate mites from rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi.

Wiad Parazytol. 2004;50(2):117-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16859014
[Ectoprasitic mites of the families Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae (Acari: Astigmata) infecting mammals in Poland].
[Article in Polish]
Labrzycka A.
Abstract
Mites of the family Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae (Acari: Astigmata) are permanent, mono- or oligoxenous ectoparasites of mammals. Only 9 species from 4 genera of Myocoptidae are reported in Poland, as well 6 species from 4 genera of Listrophoridae, which are only a small fraction of huge number of these mites known in the world. This paper summarize known data about morphological features being adaptation of Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae to parasitize fur of mammals.

Cutis. 2004 Jul;74(1):23-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15293694
What’s eating you? Cheyletiella mites.
Elston DM.
[NO ABSTRACT]

Vet Parasitol. 2004 Sep 20;124(1-2):109-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15350666
Clinical development and serological antibody responses in sheep and rabbits experimentally infested with Psoroptes ovis and Psoroptes cuniculi.
Siegfried E, Ochs H, Deplazes P.
Abstract
Psoroptes ovis of sheep origin, and Psoroptes cuniculi of rabbit origin were used in experimental infestations. In experiment I, groups of four rabbits and four sheep were infested with 50-100 mites of each isolate on the skin of the back (skin infestation, SI) or in the external auditory canal (aural infestation, AI). In rabbits, SI and AI with P. cuniculi and AI with P. ovis induced in all animals typical ear lesions and pronounced antibody reactions to P. cuniculi antigens in ELISA. After SI of rabbits with P. ovis no clinical signs were detected, no mites could be reisolated and no specific antibodies were detected. In sheep, P. ovis SI induced mange whereas AI did not induce typical clinical signs and mites could not be reisolated. In both these animal groups, ELISA revealed pronounced and comparable specific antibody reactions. After SI and AI with P. cuniculi no clinical symptoms were observed and no mites could be reisolated. Nevertheless, low levels of specific antibody were detected. In experiment II, clinical progression and antibody reactions to P. ovis SI in naive sheep were compared with sheep previously exposed to P. ovis or P. cuniculi. In both pre-exposed groups of animals, clinical signs appeared within 2 days after challenge infestation and three days earlier than in primarily infested sheep. Subsequently, no obvious difference in the clinical progression was observed between the three groups of animals. The results of this study document antigenetic crossreactivity of the two morphologically and genetically distinguishable Psoroptes species but differences in their biological behaviour and virulence which both are of epidemiological and taxonomic relevance.

Exp Appl Acarol. 2005;36(3):199-206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16132734
Relationship between Psoroptes cuniculi and the internal bacterium Serratia marcescens.
Perrucci S, Rossi G, Fichi G, O’Brien DJ.
Abstract
The bacterium Serratia marcescens isolated from surface-sterilised Psoroptes cuniculi was found sensitive to the antibiotic Amikacin. Mites placed in this antibiotic for 48-72 h and then washed by centrifugation were found to be alive and S. marcescens-free. Two experimental infestations were undertaken in order to verify the ability of the S. marcescens-free mites to infect and to give ear skin lesions in healthy rabbits and to evaluate the differential ability of the S. marcescens-free and S. marcescens-infected mites to give ear skin lesions. All rabbits were found to be infested, but only rabbits infested with S. marcescens-free mites presented crusts in their ears, whereas mites and/or eggs were only detected in the ear cerumen of all rabbits infested with S. marcescens-infected mites. S. marcescens was isolated only from P. cuniculi mites taken from these latter rabbits. Results indicate that P. cuniculi mites do not need S. marcescens to live and to be able to infest a healthy rabbit. In addition, S. marcescens was not isolated from eggs and newly born larvae of S. marcescens-infected P. cuniculi, demonstrating that in a population of P. cuniculi this bacterium is not transmitted transovarially.

Vet Dermatol. 2005 Aug;16(4):285-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16101801
Use of doramectin for treatment of sarcoptic mange in five Angora rabbits.
Voyvoda H, Ulutas B, Eren H, Karagenc T, Bayramli G.
Abstract
The efficacy of administering doramectin after moxidectin treatment, which has previously proved only partially effective, was evaluated in five Angora rabbits naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Evaluations included physical examination for clinical signs of sarcoptic mange and collection of skin scrapings for determination of mites. The rabbits first received two subcutaneous injections, 10 days apart, of moxidectin 1% injectable solution at a dosage of 0.2 mg kg(-1) of bodyweight. Although moxidectin treatment resulted in clinical improvement within 10 days post initial injection, on days 10 and 35 post initial treatment live mites were present in skin scrapings. Administration of doramectin 1% injectable solution using the same route and dosage and at similar intervals to moxidectin led to complete disappearance of signs of scabies and parasitological cure in all rabbits.

Vet Dermatol. 2005 Oct;16(5):334-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238814
Efficacy of topical administration of eprinomectin for treatment of ear mite infestation in six rabbits.
Ulutas B, Voyvoda H, Bayramli G, Karagenc T.
Abstract
Six rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi were treated topically on the skin at the base of the neck with 0.5 mg kg(-1) of 0.5% pour-on eprinomectin for cattle, twice at 14-day intervals. Efficacy of the drug was based on the disappearance of clinical signs and the absence of live mites for a period of 6 weeks. Clinical improvement was seen within 3 days of the first application; however, complete recovery of clinical signs and elimination of mites in 5/6 rabbits did not occur until the end of the study. No adverse reactions attributable to eprinomectin treatment were observed during the observation period. Results of this trial indicated that eprinomectin was partially effective in the treatment of psoroptic mange in rabbits.

Vet Parasitol. 2006 Apr 30;137(3-4):386-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16473465
Efficacy of an injectable formulation of eprinomectin against Psoroptes cuniculi, the ear mange mite in rabbits.
Pan B, Wang M, Xu F, Wang Y, Dong Y, Pan Z.
Abstract
Thirty rabbits naturally infected with ear mange mite, Psoroptes cuniculi, were subcutaneously administrated with a single dose of eprinomectin at 100, 200 and 300 microg/kg body weight or vehicle on day 0. The extent of lesions was scored on day -6 (prior to treatment), day 0 (treated), days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, the ear scabs were collected simultaneously; mites in scabs were examined and counted. The results showed that a single dose of eprinomectin at 200 or 300 microg/kg body weight following subcutaneous administration was able to eliminate P. cuniculi infection in rabbits, and a dose of eprinomectin at 100 microg/kg could significantly reduce mites but was unable to eliminate P. cuniculi.

Vet Dermatol. 2007 Feb;18(1):18-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17222235
Use of selamectin for the treatment of psoroptic and sarcoptic mite infestation in rabbits.
Kurtdede A, Karaer Z, Acar A, Guzel M, Cingi CC, Ural K, Ica A.
Abstract
Selamectin, a novel avermectin compound, was evaluated for its efficacy against naturally occurring infestations of Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei. A total of 42 New Zealand rabbits with psoroptic mange and 37 Angora rabbits with sarcoptic mange were used in the present study. On day 0, infested rabbits were treated topically with either selamectin at minimum dose of 6 mg kg(-1) (6-18 mg kg(-1) for New Zealand rabbits, n = 31 and 10-12 mg kg(-1) for Angora rabbits, n = 23) or vehicle only (control groups, n = 11 for New Zealand rabbits, n = 14 for Angora rabbits). The efficacy of selamectin was assessed both clinically and parasitologically by the presence or absence of viable mites. Rabbits were scraped for sarcoptic mites on days 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 and had otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination for the detection of Psoroptes mites on days 7, 14, 42 and 56. Fisher’s exact test was used to assess differences between the vehicle and selamectin treatment in the number of rabbits without mites (cure rates) on each assessment date. It was found that significantly fewer selamectin-treated rabbits had mites detected on skin scrapings (for S. scabiei) or otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination (for P. cuniculi) (P < 0.01) than the vehicle group. Results of the present study suggest that selamectin is effective against naturally infestations of P. cuniculi and S. scabiei in rabbits.

Parasitol Res. 2007 May;100(6):1281-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17219221
Immunocytochemistry of Psoroptes cuniculi stained by sera from naive and infested rabbits: preliminary results.
Rossi G, Donadio E, Perrucci S.
Abstract
Immunocytochemistry was used to identify possible target antigens in the digestive system of Psoroptes cuniculi. Sera from three recently acutely infested rabbits, from rabbits with a mild long lasting infestation, and from a rabbit with repeated mite infestations and no longer able to maintain a population of P. cuniculi were used to determine any antibody specificity to the mite digestive system. The reactivity of these sera was compared with sera from three un-infested animals. The different pool of sera targeted different mite antigens; in particular, sera from the resistant rabbit and the chronically infested rabbits reacted with gut cells, faecal material and cuticle, while sera from the recently infested rabbits reacted with gut contents, faecal material and cuticle of the parasites but not with gut cells. Finally, sera from un-infested rabbits did not demonstrate any specificity to P. cuniculi antigens reacting only with mite gut contents in a weak manner. These preliminary data suggest the presence of antibodies induced in the host blood by infection, which act against the parasite by binding to antigen at the surface of its gut.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32(3):244-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18985580
[Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in four rabbits and treatment with ivermectin].
[Article in Turkish]
Arslan HH, Açici M, Umur S, Hökelek M.
Abstract
Psoroptes cuniculi for treatment and in 10 rabbits in contact with the infested animals for protection. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated based on the clinical signs, the absence of live mites and new clinical cases during a period of least two weeks. Elimination of clinical signs and mites were seen in three rabbits seven days after the ivermectin injection, but one rabbit, which had meningitis-like signs, died. Also, no new cases occurred in the other ten rabbits. These results suggest that an application of ivermectin can completely eliminate mites from rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi and that it was also a sufficient method for protection from contact infestation.

Acta Vet Scand. 2008 Jan 2;50:1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18171479
Treatment of rabbit cheyletiellosis with selamectin or ivermectin: a retrospective case study.
Mellgren M, Bergvall K.
Abstract
A retrospective study of rabbits treated against cheyletiellosis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of selamectin or ivermectin in clinical practice. Medical records from 53 rabbits with microscopically confirmed Cheyletiella infestation were collected from two small animal clinics. The rabbits were divided into three groups, based on treatment protocols. Group 1 included 11 rabbits treated with ivermectin injections at 200-476 microg kg-1 subcutaneously 2-3 times, with a mean interval of 11 days. In Group 2, 27 rabbits were treated with a combination of subcutaneous ivermectin injections (range 618-2185 microgkg-1) and oral ivermectin (range 616-2732 microgkg-1) administered by the owners, 3-6 times at 10 days interval. The last group (Group 3) included 15 rabbits treated with selamectin spot-on applications of 6.2-20,0 mgkg-1, 1-3 times with an interval of 2-4 weeks. Follow-up time was 4 months-4.5 years. Rabbits in remission were 9/11 (81,8%), 14/27 (51,9%) and 12/15 (80,8%) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively.All treatment protocols seemed to be sufficiently effective and safe for practice use. Though very high doses were used in Group 2 (ivermectin injections followed by oral administration), the protocol seemed less efficacious compared to ivermectin injections (Group 1) and selamectin spot on (Group 3), respectively, although not statistically significant. Controlled prospective studies including larger groups are needed to further evaluate efficacy of the treatment protocols.

Vet Dermatol. 2008 Feb;19(1):26-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177288
Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of cheyletiellosis in pet rabbits.
Kim SH, Lee JY, Jun HK, Song KH, Park BK, Kim DH.
Abstract
Cheyletiellosis is a very common parasitic skin disorder of pet rabbits typically associated with pruritus and scaling. In this study, a total 23 rabbits with cheyletiellosis were treated with a single topical application of selamectin at a dose of 12 mg kg(-1). All rabbits were examined at 3 and 5 weeks after treatment. Five weeks after selamectin application, the scaling and pruritus had resolved in all 23 rabbits, and microscopic examination of epidermal debris collected by acetate tape and flea combing was all negative for mites and eggs. No side-effects were observed in any of the rabbits. This indicates that selamectin is an effective treatment for cheyletiellosis in rabbits.

Vet Dermatol. 2008 Jun;19(3):189-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18477337
Prevalence of fur mites in pet rabbits in South Korea.
Kim SH, Jun HK, Song KH, Gram D, Kim DH.
Abstract
The prevalence of fur mites, Cheyletiella parasitovorax and Leporacarus gibbus, in pet rabbits in South Korea was investigated by a diagnostic evaluation of skin surface tape strips and hair coat combings. C. parasitovorax was found in 80 of 140 rabbits (57.1%) and L. gibbus in six of 140 rabbits (4.3%). Clinical signs of pruritus and scaling were observed in 17 of 80 and 76 of 80 infested rabbits, respectively.

Vet Parasitol. 2008 Oct 20;157(1-2):144-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752898
Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.
Du YH, Jia RY, Yin ZQ, Pu ZH, Chen J, Yang F, Zhang YQ, Lu Y.
Abstract
The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively.

Res Vet Sci. 2008 Oct;85(2):291-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18061636
The curative and antioxidative efficiency of doramectin and doramectin+vitamin AD3E treatment on Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in rabbits.
Kanbur M, Atalay O, Ica A, Eraslan G, Cam Y.
Abstract
In the present study, the efficiency of the administration of doramectin (DOR) and DOR+vitamin AD3E (VIT), and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in rabbits infested by Psoroptes cuniculi (P. cuniculi) were investigated. DOR (200 microg/kg) and DOR (200 microg/kg)+VIT AD3E were administered to infested rabbits intramuscularly (IM). The administration of DOR and DOR+VIT improved the healing of ear lesions on day seven. Increase in the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level and erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity, and decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in infested rabbits. In the rabbits which were administered DOR+VIT, plasma MDA levels decreased, and erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities increased on day seven. In conclusion, DOR and DOR+VIT combination were effective against P. cunuculi infestation. Infestation stimulated oxidative stress. VIT treatment resulted in antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by P. cuniculi infestation.

Vet Rec. 2009 Apr 4;164(14):431-2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19346543
Effectiveness of a selamectin spot-on formulation in rabbits with sarcoptic mange.
Farmaki R1, Koutinas AF, Papazahariadou MG, Kasabalis D, Day MJ.
[NO ABSTRACT]

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2009 Nov;48(6):757-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19930824
Comparison of selamectin and imidacloprid plus permethrin in eliminating Leporacarus gibbus infestation in laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
Birke LL, Molina PE, Baker DG, Leonard ST, Marrero LJ, Johnson M, Simkin J.
Abstract
A shipment of New Zealand white rabbits was infested with Leporacarus gibbus, a rabbit fur mite. This study compared the effectiveness of selamectin with that of imidocloprid plus permethrin in eliminating the mite infestation. Rabbits were divided into 2 groups, and either selamectin or imidocloprid plus permethrin was applied topically. Visual and microscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, and 27 for 5 sites (the left and right gluteal areas, neck, ventral tail, and abdomen). Mean percentage effectiveness for each treatment was calculated for each time point. Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of visual examination were determined relative to microscopic assessment. In addition, location prevalence for the mites was determined. Both treatments were 100% effective by day 13, but selamectin was 100% effective by day 3. The positive predictive value of visual examination was 96%, its negative predictive value was 86%, sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 98%. Parasite burden was most prevalent on the right and left gluteal areas. We conclude that although both imidocloprid plus permethrin and selamectin were effective against L. gibbus, treatment with selamectin more rapidly eliminated the infestation.

Vet Ital. 2010 Jan-Mar;46(1):51-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391367
Comparison of efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin against mange mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) in naturally infested rabbits in Turkey.
Kaya D, Inceboz T, Kolatan E, Güneli E, Yilmaz O.
Abstract
The authors used 14 New Zealand rabbits (5 naturally infested rabbits and 9 in-contact rabbits) for Sarcoptes scabiei treatment in this study. Signs, such as itchy ears, eyes, tail and abdominal skin, alopecia and pyoderma, were considered to be the cause of these disorders. Infested rabbits were grouped according to the intensity of S. scabiei infestation (low, medium and high). Each group was then divided into two subgroups; in one subgroup the rabbits received ivermectin (1%) and, in the other, doramectin (1%). All subgroups received a subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 400 microg/kg body weight every 80 h on three occasions. On day 28 after commencing the treatment, all the rabbits in the first two groups had recovered completely. Although both drugs were applied at the same time and at the same dose, the third group (high degree of infestation), revealed, both microscopically and macroscopically, that ivermectin has more rapid effect than doramectin. Treatment was effective in all groups.

Parasitol Res. 2010 Feb;106(3):607-13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20069313
The effect of self-licking behavior on pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin and clinical efficacy against Psoroptes cuniculi in topically administered rabbits.
Wen H, Pan B, Wang F, Yang Z, Wang Z, Liu S, Wang M.
Abstract
Ear mange mite Psoroptes cuniculi, one of the predominant parasites in rabbits, can cause considerable weight loss, low favorable fee conversion rates, and meningitis. The present experiment was to investigate the difference of plasma disposition and the variation of clinical efficacy under the effect of animal self-licking behavior in topically administered rabbits. Ten rabbits for pharmacokinetic study in two groups (the self-licking and the nonlicking)were topically administered with 1 mg kg(-1) of eprinomectin. In the self-licking group, rabbits were allowed to self-lick freely, while, to prevent self-licking, each animal in the non-licking group was fitted with a pet collar. Compared to the non-licking group, self-licking behavior contributed to an extremely significant shorter half-life of absorption (14.85+/-2.79 h in licking group vs.29.44+/-7.81 h in non-licking group, p<0.01) and an extremely significant higher C(max) value for eprinomectin (21.95+/-5.36 h in licking group vs. 6.98+/-0.72 ng ml(-1) in non-licking group, p<0.01) in plasma disposition. An extremely significantly shorter mean residence time (50.72+/-3.45 h) in self-licking group was also determined compared with the value obtained in non-licking group (106.66+/-7.39 h; p<0.01). Clinical efficacy study of eprinomectin was examined in rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi which were randomly allocated in three groups: the self-licking, the non-licking, and control groups. All rabbits in the self-licking and the non-licking groups were treated with topical eprinomectin at a single dose of 2 mg kg(-1) (day 0). Topical eprinomection led to a complete parasitological recovery in both treated groups on day 14 and remained free of live mites and clinical lesions from day 21 to the end of the study period (day 35). PLoS One. 2010 Aug 11;5(8):e12079. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20711455 Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites. Pasay C, Mounsey K, Stevenson G, Davis R, Arlian L, Morgan M, Vyszenski-Moher D, Andrews K, McCarthy J. Abstract Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues–acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012 Jan;44(1):43-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21643667 Psoroptes cuniculi induced oxidative imbalance in rabbits and its alleviation by using vitamins A, D3, E, and H as adjunctive remedial. Singh SK, Dimri U, Sharma MC, Swarup D, Kumar M, Tiwary R. Abstract The oxidant/antioxidant balance of rabbits naturally infected with Psoroptes cuniculi and treated with ivermectin +/- vitamins A, D(3), E, and H supplementation was investigated. Two groups of seven mixed ? and ?, 6-to-8 month-old New Zealand White rabbits, diagnosed Psoroptes mites-positive by skin scraping examination and seven clinically healthy control rabbits were examined. Blood samples were obtained on day 0 and at 28 days post-therapy to determine oxidative stress indices. On day 0, the levels of lipid peroxides were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the Psoroptes-infected rabbits compared with the healthy controls while those of reduced glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were significantly lower (P = 0.01). Vitamin supplementation of the ivermectin-treated rabbits revealed both faster clinical (14 days) and parasitological (10 days) recovery. It was concluded that significant alteration of oxidant/antioxidant balance is a factor in the pathogenesis of P. cuniculi infestation of rabbits, and recovery can be enhanced by combining ivermectin treatment with vitamin A, D(3,) E, and H supplementation. Vet Parasitol. 2012 Feb 10;183(3-4):323-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21852039 Widespread exposure to Sarcoptes scabiei in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain. Millán J, Casáis R, Delibes-Mateos M, Calvete C, Rouco C, Castro F, Colomar V, Casas-Díaz E, Ramírez E, Moreno S, Prieto JM, Villafuerte R. Abstract Sarcoptic mange was recently described in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in north-eastern Mediterranean Spain, the first such infection reported in this species anywhere in the world. This finding has created concern in conservationists and game managers given that an outbreak of mange after a translocation would have catastrophic consequences for naïve rabbit populations in other parts of Spain. A retrospective serosurvey using an ‘in house’ ELISA test based on the use of a recombinant antigen aimed at determining the rates of contact with Sarcoptes scabiei was carried out on sera from 966 rabbits collected between 1993 and 2010 in Spain. Antibodies were found in 13% of wild rabbits in 60% of the 53 areas surveyed, as well as in 16 of the 17 Spanish provinces and islands studied. Seropositive rabbits were found amongst the oldest samples analyzed and in all studied years. Antibodies were also detected in 36% of rabbits from the protected island of Dragonera, where rabbits have probably not been released since the 1970s. On Mallorca, where 89 rabbits were inspected for both lesions and antibodies, the prevalence of lesions (5.6%) was much lower than the seroprevalence (22.5%), indicating that rabbits often survive infection or that ELISA detects infected rabbits before they develop visible lesions. Seroprevalence was higher in areas with medium levels of rabbit abundance, no restocking and high rainfall. The results show that mange is widespread in rabbits and that the mite is not a recent introduction. Thus, sarcoptic mange could be considered as an enzootic disease in the wild rabbit and so prophylactic measures implemented during rabbit translocations are to be encouraged to avoid local outbreaks in naïve populations. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77(1):145-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291773 Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens. Nakazawa T, Khan AF, Yasueda H, Saito A, Fukutomi Y, Takai T, Zaman K, Yunus M, Takeuchi H, Iwata T, Akiyama K. Abstract There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases. Vet Parasitol. 2013 Feb 18;192(1-3):247-52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107339 Clinical efficacy of botanical extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the scab mite, Psoroptes cuniculi. Nong X, Ren YJ, Wang JH, Fang CL, Xie Y, Yang DY, Liu TF, Chen L, Zhou X, Gu XB, Zheng WP, Peng XR, Wang SX, Lai SJ, Yang GY. Abstract This study evaluated the in vivo clinical efficacy of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) extracts against the scab mite, Psoroptes cuniculi. A 30-day experiment was performed using New Zealand rabbits that were naturally infested with P. cuniculi on a farm. Rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals per group); animals in groups A, B and C were treated in each ear topically with 2 ml of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml (w/v) E. adenophorum ethanol extract, respectively. Animals in groups D and E were treated with ivermectin (by injection; positive controls) and glycerol with water only (by embrocation; negative controls), respectively. Each rabbit was treated twice with separate treatments on days 0 and 7. Rabbits were observed daily and detailed examinations were performed on days 0, 7, 14 and 30, to inspect the presence or absence of mites and scabs/crusts. Clinical infection and the degree of recovery were evaluated, and the rate of reduction in mites and clinical efficacy rate (%) were calculated. The clinical effect of treatment with E. adenophorum extracts was similar to treatment with ivermectin. Seven days after the initial treatment, the mean clinical scores (presence of scabs/crusts) decreased from 3.32, 3.08 and 3.17 to 0.37, 0.47 and 0.48 in the left ears of animals in groups A, B and C, respectively, and from 3.53, 3.73 and 3.67 to 0.40, 0.45 and 0.48 in the right ears of animals in groups A, B and C, respectively, which were similar to the observations recorded in the positive control rabbits. However, the clinical score for negative control rabbits did not decrease significantly (P>0.05) during the experiment, and this changed from 3.32 to 2.75 in the left ears and from 3.50 to 3.25 in the right ears, and there were no significant differences in clinical efficacy between left and right ears. After two treatments (7 days space), the rabbits in groups A, B, C and D had recovered completely 30 days after the last treatment and no recurrences of infection were observed. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent compounds for the effective control of animal acariasis.

Med Vet Entomol. 2013 Jun;27(2):232-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22958077
Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.
Millán J, Casais R, Colomar V, Bach E, Prieto JM, Velarde R.
Abstract
Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

Parasitol Res. 2013 Jun;112(6):2319-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572045
The acaricidal efficacy of aqueous neem extract and ivermectin against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in experimentally infested rabbits.
Seddiek SA, Khater HF, El-Shorbagy MM, Ali AM.
Abstract
Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi is one of the most important veterinary ectoparasites in rabbits and results in considerable loss of weight, productivity, and wool quality. The acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of neem (CAN) and ivermectin (IVR) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Rabbits were classified into four groups (ten rabbits each). The first group (group 1) was designated as the negative control group. Each rabbit of the other groups was experimentally infested with 50 mites. One month post-infestation, the second group (group 2) was not treated and taken into account as the positive control group. The third group (group 3) was subcutaneously injected with 1 % IVR (200 µg/kg body weight, three times within a week interval). The fourth group (group 4) was treated topically with CAN (25 %) every 3 days for three consecutive weeks. Index scoring of lesions was described weekly. The number of live mites (larvae, nymphs, and adults) on each rabbit was counted on the 14th, 28th, and 42th day post-treatment (PT). Blood samples were taken 28 and 42 days PT for estimation of some chemical parameters. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain were recoded 14, 28, and 42 days PT. CAN (40 %) was highly efficacious against larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi as 100 % mortality was reached 24 h PT. On the other hand, all treated mites with CAN (20 %) and IVR died 48 h PT. The lethal values of CAN (LC50, LC90, LC95, and LC99) were 7.496, 14.67, 17.75, and 25.37 %, respectively, 48 h PT. Lesion scoring in groups 3 and 4 were significantly decreased (P?=?0.05), reaching 0.20 and 0.40, respectively, when compared with that of group 2 (4.00), 42 days PT. Twenty-eight days PT, the reduction percentages of mites infesting rabbits were 93.38 and 93.09 % for IVR and CAN, respectively. However, complete mite reduction was reached 42 days PT. Rabbits treated with CAN did not show signs of restlessness or irritation, respiratory signs, or inflammation on the eye and/or skin at the time of application or afterwards. Regarding biochemical analysis, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and total cholesterol in rabbits treated with CAN were decreased significantly (P?=?0.05) than those of rabbits of the positive control group and those treated with IVR. On the other hand, the levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin of rabbits in group 4 were significantly (P?=?0.05) increased when compared with the corresponding values of groups 2 and 3. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain of rabbits treated with CAN were significantly increased (P?=?0.05) when compared with such values of groups 2 and 3, 28 and 42 days PT. The present data indicated that CAN had in vitro and in vivo acaricidal efficiency similar to that of IVR and improved the performance of rabbits without inducing adverse effects on treated rabbits; consequently, CAN could be suitable as a promising alternative acaricide for veterinary use.

Vet Parasitol. 2013 Jul 1;195(1-2):157-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23518619
Clinical efficacy of botanical extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the Sarcoptes scabiei (Sarcoptidae: Sarcoptes) in rabbits.
Nong X, Ren YJ, Wang JH, Xie Y, Fang CL, Yang DY, Liu TF, Zhang RH, Chen L, Gu XB, Peng XR, Wang SX, Lai SJ, Yang GY.
Abstract
The aims of present study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against Sarcoptes scabiei. A 30-day experiment was performed using New Zealand rabbits that were naturally infested with S. scabiei in the toes (n=30) or artificially infected in the external ear margin with S. scabiei (n=30). Rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals per group, A-E groups for rabbits of naturally infested and F-J groups for artificially infected rabbits), respectively. All 60 rabbits were treated twice on days 0 and 7 successively. Animals in groups A/F, B/G, and C/H were treated on each toe/external ear margin with topical E. adenophorum ethanol extract at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml (w/v), respectively. Animals in groups D/I and E/J were treated with ivermectin by injections (positive controls) or by glycerol with water only rubbed onto the affected area (negative controls). After two treatments with extracts of E. adenophorum with relatively high concentrations of 0.5 and 1g/ml, the S. scabiei was completely eliminated in rabbits between days 14 and 30. Our results showed that rabbits treated with ivermectin (positive controls) and those treated with the extracts of concentrations of 1.0 or 0.5 g/ml achieved remarkable therapeutic efficacy; no mites were present in toes of rabbits in these groups on day 14, which confirmed a 100% therapeutic efficacy rate up to day 30 of the end of the trial. The clinical effects of treatment with 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml E. adenophorum extracts (groups A and B) were similar to ivermectin treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy in group C and E rabbits only reached 43.25% and 7.13% by day 14. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy improved slightly by the end of the experiment on day 30, and rabbits in groups F, G and I also achieved good efficacy according to the recovery scoring criteria. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent compounds for the effective control of sarcoptidosis.

BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 22;13:336. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23875925
Characterisation and analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a potential antigen for the serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in rabbits by dot-ELISA.
Zhang R, Zheng W, Wu X, Jise Q, Ren Y, Nong X, Gu X, Wang S, Peng X, Lai S, Yang G.
Abstract
Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread but a neglected tropical zoonosis. In this study, we characterised a S. scabiei thioredoxin peroxidase (SsTPx) and evaluated a recombinant SsTPx as a diagnostic antigen in rabbits. The open reading frame of the gene encoding SsTPx-2 was amplified and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified. SsTPx was localized in mite tissue by immunolocalisation using the purified recombinant protein. Serodiagnosis assays were carried out in 203 New Zealand White rabbit serum samples by dot-ELISA. The open reading frame (489 bp) of the gene encodes an 18.11 kDa protein, which showed highly homology to that of Psoroptes cuniculi (98.77% identity) and belongs to the 2-Cys family of peroxiredoxins. SsTPx was mainly distributed in muscle tissues of mites, integument of the epidermis and the anterior end of S. scabiei. Although SsTPx cross-reactivity with psoroptic mites was observed, the SsTPx dot-ELISA showed excellent diagnostic ability, with 95.3% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity in mange-infected and uninfected groups. This study showed that the purified SsTPx is a highly sensitive antigen for the diagnosis of mange infection by dot-ELISA. This technique is a rapid and convenient method that can be used worldwide for the clinical diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in rabbits, and is especially useful in developing regions.

Parasit Vectors. 2013 Dec 19;6:361. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354923
Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus.
Hallal-Calleros C, Morales-Montor J, Vázquez-Montiel JA, Hoffman KL, Nieto-Rodríguez A, Flores-Pérez FI.
Abstract
Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after chronic infestation. The behaviors described here may be a useful and economic tool in guiding the early diagnosis of parasitic infestation by P. cuniculi, allowing for early treatment and the application of control measures before significant weight loss occurs, thereby avoiding economic losses.

Parasitol Res. 2013 Dec;112(12):4255-66. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096608
Parasites of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from an urban area in Germany, in relation to worldwide results.
Frank R, Kuhn T, Mehlhorn H, Rueckert S, Pham D, Klimpel S.
Abstract
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to the most invasive and successful mammalian species, which is distributed nearly worldwide. In Europe, they inhabit broad parts of the mainland and subsequently reached several European islands via anthropogenic diversion. Rabbits can also serve as hosts for numerous parasite species. The parasite and pathogen fauna of O. cuniculus have been well documented in various European countries, although studies in Germany are scarce. Until now, a comprehensive survey combining recent international studies over parasite fauna of wild rabbits had not been conducted. We examined 50 wild rabbits from an urban area near Aachen (Germany) to identify their metazoan parasite fauna, and then compared our findings to previous international investigations. A total of nine parasite species were isolated consisting of four endoparasite species (Cittotaenia denticulata, Graphidium strigosum, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis) and five ectoparasite species (Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ixodes ricinus, Leporacarus gibbus, Haemodipsus ventricosus, and Spilopsyllus cuniculi). Among the ectoparasites were two verifiable human pathogenic species and two potentially pathogenic species. In comparison to previous studies, a high number of similarities in composition of helminth species fauna were revealed. Furthermore, our results showed partial agreement with international surveys in prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites C. denticulata, G. strigosum, P. ambiguus, and T. retortaeformis.

Vet Dermatol. 2014 Feb;25(1):46-e17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325409
Leporacarus gibbus infestation in client-owned rabbits and their owner.
d’Ovidio D, Santoro D.
Abstract
Leporacarus gibbus is a fur mite infesting both laboratory and pet rabbits; infestation is usually subclinical, but in some instances it has been associated with a highly pruritic dermatitis. A zoonotic potential has also been suggested. Two pet rabbits, living in the same household, were presented with moderate scaling, erythema, pruritus and alopecia. In both rabbits, the lesions were mainly localized around the neck. A pruritic papular dermatitis was also present on the owner’s arms and legs. Parasitological examination of the rabbits’ skin and fur revealed many mites of the species L. gibbus. Skin cytology and fungal culture were both negative for bacteria and fungi. Both rabbits were treated with a single application of a spot-on formulation of 1% moxidectin and 10% imidacloprid, as well as environmental disinfection with a miticide. After treatment, the rabbits improved markedly, and the lesions on the owner’s arms and legs disappeared within a week. This is the second description of L. gibbus dermatitis in people. In the present case report, the lesions on the rabbits and their owner were very similar, a pruritic dermatitis with small papules, more evident on the owner’s extremities. Due to its zoonotic potential, although uncommon, L. gibbus infestation should be considered as a possible differential in pet rabbits, particularly when owners have a papular eruption.

Exp Appl Acarol. 2014 Feb;62(2):225-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24052400
Acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.
Gu X, Fang C, Yang G, Xie Y, Nong X, Zhu J, Wang S, Peng X, Yan Q.
Abstract
The potential acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract were assessed against two common species of animal ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi, in vitro. A. altissima bark extract was obtained by ethanol thermal circumfluence and tested at four concentrations (1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/ml) on mites collected from rabbits. Compared to the fenvalerate treatment group, the A. altissima bark exhibited significant acaricidal properties for both mite species treated. The extract of concentrations of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml killed all tested S. scabiei within 7 h, however, only 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml of extract killed all treated P. cuniculi. The median lethal time (LT50) values at 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml were 0.60, 0.78, 1.48 h for S. scabiei and 0.74, 1.29, 3.33 h for P. cuniculi. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for P. cuniculi was approximately 1.6 times that for S. scabiei var. cuniculi at 4 h. The extract showed stronger toxicity against S. scabiei than against P. cuniculi. Mortality rates increased with increasing concentration of extract administered and with increasing time post-treatment, indicating that the acaricidal activity of A. altissima bark extract is both time-dependent and dose-dependent. This is the first report on acaricidal activity of A. altissima against P. cuniculi and S. scabiei var. cuniculi. It indicates that A. altissima contain potential acaricidal compounds. Our study is the first step to develop potentially novel compounds from A. altissima for the effective control of mites in livestock.

Parasite Immunol. 2014 Feb;36(2):53-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24102446
Evaluating troponin C from Psoroptes cuniculi as a diagnostic antigen for a dot-ELISA assay to diagnose mite infestations in rabbits.
Zheng W, Zhang R, Wu X, Ren Y, Nong X, Gu X, Wang S, Peng X, Yang G.
Abstract
The mite Psoroptes cuniculi is globally widespread and has a serious impact on commercial rabbit breeding. In China, diagnosis of P. cuniculi is currently based on conventional clinical methods that entail numerous disadvantages, including their failure to diagnose subclinical infections. Hence, alternative measures are required, and dot-ELISA is one of the most promising strategies. We cloned and expressed the recombinant P. cuniculi troponin C gene for use as a basis for novel dot-ELISA assay to detect P. cuniculi infections in rabbits. This amplified sequence encoded a 153 amino acid protein of 17·6 kDa and theoretical pI 4·18 without signal peptide. The recombinant troponin C of P. cuniculi is an outer membrane protein and may also be a new P. cuniculi allergen. Results of dot-ELISA test showed that this novel assay had more than 90% sensitivity but low specificity in distinguishing infections with P. cuniculi or Sarcoptic scabiei, despite very high agreement between observers (97-99%; ? values ranged from 0·95 to 0·98 for inter- and intra-observer variability test). This study showed that this novel method, at present, lacks diagnostic utility. Therefore, although simple serological assays such as dot-ELISA show great promise as diagnostic tools, we suggest that troponin C is not a suitable diagnostic antigen candidate.

Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 25;7:124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24667000
The oxidative status and inflammatory level of the peripheral blood of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi.
Shang X, Wang D, Miao X, Wang X, Li J, Yang Z, Pan H.
Abstract
Psoroptes cuniculi can parasitise the ear canal of the rabbit, and cause the afflicted animals to cease feeding and become severely debilitated, sometimes resulting in death. In this study, we examined the oxidative status and inflammatory level of the peripheral blood of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi and investigated the pathogenesis of this disease. A total of 24 rabbits were divided into a healthy rabbit group and two infested rabbit groups. After weighing the rabbits, approximately 5 ml of blood was obtained from each animal. Then, the blood serum was extracted and used to assess the levels of antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory factors. Compared to the healthy rabbits, the activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and the level of malonyldialdehyde were increased, but the activity of superoxide dismutase was reduced in the infested rabbits. At the same time, a variety of inflammatory cells were activated, and the levels of inflammatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-ß1 were increased in peripheral blood. Animal acariasis was associated with immunosuppressive disorders and inflammatory reaction. These results advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in rabbits and can help guide the effectual treatment of this disease in clinics.

Vet Parasitol. 2014 Jun 16;203(1-2):173-83. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690250
Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.
Casais R, Dalton KP, Millán J, Balseiro A, Oleaga A, Solano P, Goyache F, Prieto JM, Parra F.
Abstract
Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system.

Parasit Vectors. 2015 May 24;8:285. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26003809
Acaricidal effect and histological damage induced by Bacillus thuringiensis protein extracts on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.
Dunstand-Guzmán E, Peña-Chora G, Hallal-Calleros C, Pérez-Martínez M, Hernández-Velazquez VM, Morales-Montor J, Flores-Pérez FI.
Erratum in
Erratum to: Acaricidal effect and histological damage induced by Bacillus thuringiensis protein extracts on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. [Parasit Vectors. 2015]
Abstract
The mite Psoroptes cuniculi is a common worldwide ectoparasite and the most frequently found in rabbit farms. It causes significant economic losses on commercial rabbit breeding associated with poor leather quality, reduced conception rates, weight loss, poor growth and death. Several strategies have been proposed for the treatment of mange caused by this mite, ranging from the use of acaricides, entomopathogenic fungi, essential oils and vaccines. However, therapy and control of both human scabies and animal mange are still based mainly on the use of drugs and chemicals such as ivermectin, which involves disadvantages including genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, resistance and environmental damage. Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium, innocuous for human being, domestic animals and plants that produces highly biodegradable proteins, and has been used worldwide for biological control. The aim of this work was to find an alternative treatment based on biological control for scabies caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, using protein extracts from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. P. cuniculi mites were obtained from naturally infected New Zealand rabbits, and different doses of protein from B. thuringiensis were added to the mites. We measured mortality and obtained the median lethal concentration and median lethal times. For histological analysis, the mites were fixed in 10% formalin, processed according to the paraffin embedded tissue technique. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe the general histological structure. We report here for the first time evidence about the in vitro acaricidal effect caused by the strain GP532 of B. thuringiensis on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi, with an LC50 of 1.3 mg/ml and a LT50 of 68 h. Histological alterations caused by B. thuringiensis on this mite, included the presence of dilated intercellular spaces in the basal membrane, membrane detachment of the peritrophic matrix and morphological alterations in columnar cells of the intestine. Since this mite is an obligate ectoparasite that affects rabbits, goats, horses, cows and sheep, B. thuringiensis protein extracts are proposed as a potential treatment for biological control of mange in farm animals.

Vet Parasitol. 2015 Dec 15;214(3-4):315-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276579
Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ss?20?B3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits.
Casais R, Millán J, Rosell JM, Dalton KP, Prieto JM.
Abstract
An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ss?20?B3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ss?20?B3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite’s body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ss?20?B3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61 ± 39.20%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than OD values of the psoroptic-mange (3.64% ± 5.4%) and also of the free-mange (0.21% ± 0.67%) groups. In addition, the ELISA was also evaluated in serum samples obtained from both naturally infested and non-infested wild rabbits from Mallorca Island. The sensitivity of the assay for this group was 100% (4 out of the 4 rabbits with sarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions were seronegative). Although, the total number of tested samples from experimentally infested, farm and wild rabbits was limited, our study showed that the ELISA is able to differentiate between infested and non-infested animals in all tested groups with very high sensitivity and specificity indicating that recombinant Ss?20?B3 is a reliable diagnostic antigen. This assay might be a cost-effective tool for detecting the presence of mangy animals and therefore helping prevent spread of mange among domestic rabbits, reducing potential transmission from female breeding rabbits to other farms, and detecting infestation with sarcoptic mange in the wild.

J Immunotoxicol. 2016 May;13(3):349-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492975
Endosulfan splenic pathology and amelioration by vitamin C in New Zealand rabbit.
Ozmen O.
Abstract
Endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide/acaricide, is a member of a cyclodiene sub-group of poisons to a wide variety of insects and mites. It is also toxic to humans and animals, but there is limited knowledge about endosulfan-related splenic and overall immunotoxicity. The aim of this study was to review pathological findings of endosulfan toxicity in the spleen and to examine potential protective effects of the anti-oxidant Vitamin C (Vit C). Here, after 6-week exposures, the spleens of New Zealand White rabbits were examined grossly and histopathologically and tissue caspase-3 activity was assessed immunohistochemically. Rabbits in four groups were used: Group END were given by oral gavage a sub-lethal dose of endosulfan (1?mg/kg) in corn oil daily for 6 weeks; Group END?+?C received the same dose of endosulfan daily and Vit C (20?mg/kg) every other day by gavage during this period; Group Vit C received oral corn oil daily and 20?mg/kg Vit C every other day; and Group OIL received corn oil daily for 6 weeks. Analyses of the tissues collected 1 week after the final dosing revealed lymphocyte depletion and necrosis in spleens of the hosts that received the pesticide (END only and END?+?C); hemorrhage and slight neutrophilic infiltration was also noted. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was marked in lymphocytes in all spleens of rabbits in both END groups. Overall, these toxicities were mitigated by Vit C co-treatment; in END?+?C hosts, markedly decreased depletion of lymphocytes, inflammation and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed. However, even with mitigation, the level of toxicity present was still greater than any seen in the spleens of hosts that received OIL or Vit C alone. These results revealed endosulfan could cause toxicity in the rabbit spleen, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes, inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhage, and that this toxicity could begin to be mitigated by Vit C co-treatment.

Parasit Vectors. 2016 Aug 8;9(1):435. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502394
Vaccination of rabbits with immunodominant antigens from Sarcoptes scabiei induced high levels of humoral responses and pro-inflammatory cytokines but confers limited protection.
Casais R, Granda V, Balseiro A, Del Cerro A, Dalton KP, González R, Bravo P, Prieto JM, Montoya M.
Abstract
Vaccination is an attractive ecological alternative to the use of acaricides for parasite control. However, effective anti-parasite vaccines against sarcoptic mange have not yet been developed. The purpose of this study was first to identify Sarcoptes scabiei immunodominant antigens and second to evaluate them as vaccine candidates in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. cuniculi model. The S. scabiei Ss?15 immunodominant antigen was selected by immunoscreening of a S. scabiei var. hominis cDNA. The full-length cDNA was sequenced and cloned into the pGEX vector and the recombinant protein expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells and purified. A vaccination trial was performed consisting of a test group (n?=?8) immunised with recAgs (a mix of two recombinant antigens, Ss?15 and the previously described Ss?20?B3) and a control group (n?=?8) immunised with PBS. All analyses were performed with R Statistical Environment with a set at 0.050. The full-length open reading frame of the 1,821 nt cloned cDNA encodes a 64 kDa polypeptide, the sequence of which had 96 % identity with a hypothetical protein of S. scabiei. Ss?15 was localised by immunostaining of skin sections in the tegument surrounding the mouthparts and the coxa in the legs of mites. Rabbit immunisation with recAgs induced high levels of specific IgG (P? Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.
Shang X, Wang Y1, Zhou X1, Guo X1, Dong S1, Wang D1, Zhang J1, Pan H1, Zhang Y2, Miao X3.
Abstract
Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively. Moreover, 0.1mg/ml (w/v) carvacrol, 0.2mg/ml (w/v) thymol and 1% p-cymene (v/v) also possessed marked acaricidal activities, and compared with the control group, elicited mean mortalities of 84.00%, 96.00% and 66% at 24h, respectively. The median lethal times (LT50) against P. cuniculi of the concentrations of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.005% (v/v) of oregano oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene were 2.171h, 11.396h, 26.102h, and 4.424h, 8.957h and 15.201h, respectively. Meanwhile, twenty naturaly infested rabbits were used to four homogeneity groups: negative control (without treatment), positive control (treated with ivermectin), group treated with 1% of oregano oil and other group with 5% of oregano oil. All the treatments were topically. After the treatment of 1% and 5% oregano oil, the P. cuniculi were completely eliminated in the rabbits, and at the end of the test (day 20), the rabbits of all treatment groups exhibited favorable mental and physical statuses. These results indicated that oregano oil could be widely applied as a potential acaricidal agent in the treatment of animal acariasis in the future.

Parasitol Res. 2016 Aug;115(8):3013-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27098160
In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits.
Aboelhadid SM, Mahrous LN, Hashem SA, Abdel-Kafy EM, Miller RJ.
Abstract
The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro application was done in five replicates for each concentration in petri dishes in the laboratory. The treated mites were observed at 1, 12, and 24 h post application (PA) for lemon oil effect. In addition, oxidative stress profile was evaluated for the treated mite. Dependent on in vitro results, 20 % lemon oil was used in vivo trial. Twenty-four naturally infected rabbits were divided into three groups of eight: 20 % lemon oil, deltamethrin, and untreated control. The infected parts of rabbits were treated topically once a week for four successive weeks. In vitro application results showed that lemon oil 10 and 20 % diluted in water caused mortality to 100 % of mites after 24 h PA. The oxidative stress profile revealed that mites treated with 20 % lemon oil had significantly (P? Concurrent infestation of Notoedres, Sarcoptic and Psoroptic acariosis in rabbit and its management.
Panigrahi PN, Mohanty BN, Gupta AR, Patra RC, Dey S.
Abstract
Acariotic mange in rabbits is one of the important constraints in rabbit husbandry. Sarcoptes scabies var. cuniculi and Psoroptes cuniculi are most common mites prevailed in rabbits, but Notoedres cati, is the rarest mite ever been reported in rabbit. Two New Zealand white rabbits were presented with clinical signs of pruritus, alopecia, scab and crust formation and lichenification on the upper lip, ear pinnae, eyelids, lower jaw and limbs. Deep skin scraping was taken separately from 4 to 5 different skin lesions from each rabbit, revealed mixed infestations of N. cati, S. cuniculi and P. cuniculi. Subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at weekly intervals for four weeks resulted in remission of clinical signs and improvement of health condition in rabbits. This is the first report of N. cati infestation of rabbit in Odisha.

Vet Parasitol. 2017 Mar 15;236:51-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288764
Acaricidal activities of the essential oil from Rhododendron nivale Hook. f. and its main compund, d-cadinene against Psoroptes cuniculi.
Guo X, Shang X, Li B, Zhou XZ, Wen H, Zhang J.
Abstract
In this paper, the acaricidal activities of Rhododendron nivale Hook. f. and its main compound, d-cadinene were investigated, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed. The results showed that among aqueous, 70% ethanols, acetic ether, chloroform, petroleum ether and essential oil extracts from the shoots and leaves, the essential oil showed the best in vitro acaricidal activity against adult P. cuniculi, which occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The median lethal time (LT50) values of four concentrations (33.33-4.17mg/ml) of the essential oil ranged from 1.476 to 25.900h, respectively. After the treatment of P. cuniculi with the essential oil and ivermectin, infected rabbits were free of scabs or secretions in the ear canal by day 20. Then, the percent yield of essential oil from the leaves and shoots was 2.45% (w/w), which includes 50 compounds. The primary component identified was terpenes, and among of compounds identified from the essential oil of R. nivale the highest relative content was d-cadinene, which also presented the marked acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. These findings provide evidence for the use of acaricides as a traditional medicine and indicate that the essential oil and d-cadinene could be used to control mites in livestock.

Vet Parasitol. 2017 Apr 30;238:24-29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342673
Therapeutic use of Bacillus thuringiensis in the treatment of psoroptic mange in naturally infested New Zealand rabbits.
Dunstand-Guzmán E, Hallal-Calleros C, Morales-Montor J, Hernández-Velázquez VM, Zárate-Ramos JJ, Hoffman KL, Peña-Chora G, Flores-Pérez FI.
Abstract
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria known for its bioinsecticidal toxins and it has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of several parasites that infect domestic animals (helminths, ticks, mites). In this work, we evaluated the clinical efficiency of the Bacillus thuringiensis GP532 strain in the treatment of six rabbits naturally infested with the P. cuniculi mite. GP532 extract (10mg/ml) was applied by aspersion in both pinna, with a second application after seven days, and the therapeutic effect was measured in both qualitative and quantitative manner. GP532 application resulted in a decreased infestation rate, which was observed as early as 3days post-treatment. At day 14, a decrease from 4.66±0.61 to 0.50±0.10 in the left pinna and from 1.66±0.21 to 0.66±0.16 (P<0.05) in the right pinna was observed. This response was comparable to the commercial drug Ivermectin, which induced a decreased infestation rate from 4.00±0.51 to 0.16±0.10 in the left pinna and from 4.66±0.80 to 0.25±0.11 in the right pinna (P<0.05). At day 30 post-treatment, GP532 decreased the total infested area by 76.80±16.06%, whereas Ivermectin resulted in a 97.41±0.99% decrease. Neither treatment produced irritation or macroscopic lesions. Our results show that the B. thuringiensis GP532 strain has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of psoroptic mange in rabbits.

Cutis. 2017 May;99(5):335;336;355. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28632803
What’s eating you? Cheyletiella mites.
Reynolds HH, Elston DM.
Abstract
Cheyletiella are nonburrowing mites commonly found on rabbits, dogs, and cats. The mites have been known to cause disease in humans, ranging from mild dermatitis to more severe illness with systemic symptoms. Because these mites do not complete any part of their life cycle in humans, diagnosis can be challenging. Herein, we review various clinical presentations associated with Cheyletiella mites as well as diagnostic techniques and treatment options for both humans and animals.

Vet Parasitol. 2017 Jun 15;240:17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.04.019. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
The toxicity and the acaricidal mechanism against Psoroptes cuniculi of the methanol extract of Adonis coerulea Maxim.
Shang X, Guo X, Yang F, Li B, Pan H, Miao X, Zhang J.
Abstract
Adonis coerulea Maxim. is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows in scrub, grassy slope areas, and as traditional medicine it has been used to treat animal acariasis for thousands of years. In this paper, we aimed to study the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of A. coerulea (MEAC) in vivo and in vitro for supporting the clinic uses. The acaricidal activity and the mechanism of action against Psoroptes cuniculi were investigated. The results showed that isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were the primary compounds in MEAC. The toxicity test showed that median lethal dose (LD50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of MEAC were estimated to be more than 5000mg/kg in mice in vivo and more than 50mg/ml against RAW 264.7 and GM00637 cells in the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. After culturing with MEAC, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na+-K+-ATPase of mites were evaluated. Compared with the control group, SOD activity of MEAC-treated group of mites was inhibited, and CAT activity was activated at the preliminary phase but was gradually inhibited over the period of incubation. MDA content reached a peak at 6h and then gradually decreased. However, GST activity in the mites was activated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AChE and Na+-K+-ATPase activities related to neural conduction, vital functions and the transmembrane ion gradient of the mites were inhibited. MEAC is safe in the given doses in both the in vitro and the in vivo tests, can be applied in the clinic and it had good acaricidal activity. The extension of the incubation time in the mites led to dynamic disequilibrium between the production and clearing of superoxide anions, a disruption of the energy metabolism and the transmembrane ion gradient, and the inhibition of motor function. These factors may have resulted in mite death.

J Parasit Dis. 2017 Jun;41(2):429-432. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615854
Sarcoptic mange infestation in rabbits in an organized farm at Tamil Nadu.
Arul Prakash M, Soundararajan C, Nagarajan K, Tensingh Gnanaraj P, Ramesh Saravanakumar V.
Abstract
Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33.33 %) were heavily infested than the grower (21.88 %) whereas, suckling had no infestation of mange. Among the sex, males (21.95 %) were heavily infested than the females (14.89 %). Lesions were mostly found on the edges of ear, nose, face and legs and characterized by loss of hair, thickening of the skin, irregular dried dirty encrusted scabs with erythema and disfigurement of face and ear.

Vet Microbiol. 2017 Jun;205:106-109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28622851
Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.
Overgaauw PAM, Avermaete KHAV, Mertens CARM, Meijer M, Schoemaker NJ.
Abstract
Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals.

Iran J Parasitol. 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):466-472. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30483339
Exploration of Sarcoptes scabiei Antigenic Protein Which Play Roles in Scabies Pathogenesis in Goats and Rabbits.
Lastuti NDR, Hastutiek P, Suwanti LT, Chrismanto D.
Abstract
Scabies or mange is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. This skin disease affects various livestock such as goats, sheep, swine, cattle, other animals like dogs, cats, wild animals and also affect human. This research aimed to explore the protein in mites S. scabiei which has antigenic character and play roles in scabies pathogenesis in goats and rabbits. S.scabiei mites were isolated from goats and rabbits, and characterized using SDS-PAGE. In addition the protein was also analysed using Western Blot assay. The isolation and identification were carried out in 2015 at the Parasitology Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. The identification results using SDS-PAGE of mites S. scabiei var. caprae expressed 12 protein bands between 26,7 kDa and 205,8 kDa, continued by Western Blot showed 3 protein bands, after being reacted with blood serum from scabies infected goat, it could be identified antigenic protein with molecule weight 205.8 kDa, 57.3 kDa, and 43 kDa. While protein in mites S. scabiei var. cuniculi identified 9 protein bands between 24 kDa and 75 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and the Western Blot assay identified antigenic protein with molecule weight 62 kDa and 51 kDa. The antigenic protein of S. scabiei var. caprae and S. scabiei var. cuniculi showed that they are probably involved in the scabies pathogenesis in goats and rabbits.

Vet Dermatol. 2017 Aug;28(4):393-e91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251698
Use of oral fluralaner for the treatment of Psoroptes cuniculi in 15 naturally infested rabbits.
Sheinberg G, Romero C, Heredia R, Capulin M, Yarto E, Carpio J.
Abstract
Psoroptes cuniculi, a nonburrowing ear mite, is a common ectoparasite of rabbits. Constant irritation of the auditory canal by the presence of this mite can lead to otitis externa or otoacariasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluralaner on rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi and exhibiting clinical signs. Fifteen female New Zealand domestic rabbits with otitis due to naturally occurring infestation with P. cuniculi. The external ears and ear canals of each individual were examined; samples of otic exudate were extracted with cotton swabs and examined microscopically for identification of the ectoparasite. Each animal was treated with a single 25 mg/kg oral dose of fluralaner. The amount of otic exudate/cerumen was assessed and samples were obtained from the ears to evaluate for presence or absence of mites at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 90 days after receiving treatment.
Post-treatment, the amount of otic exudate decreased rapidly in all animals; by Day 12 and until the end of the study all rabbits were judged to have low amount of exudate with normally visible canals. The percentage of ears positive for P. cuniculi decreased to 13.3% of ears sampled by Day 4, and by Day 12 all rabbits were negative for the parasite. Administration of a single oral dose of fluralaner was effective for the treatment of naturally occurring P. cuniculi infestation in rabbits during a 90 day period.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9639. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28852108
Expression and characterisation of a Sarcoptes scabiei protein tyrosine kinase as a potential antigen for scabies diagnosis.
Shen N, He R, Liang Y, Xu J, He M, Ren Y, Gu X, Lai W, Xie Y, Peng X, Yang G.
Abstract
Scabies is a disease that harms humans and other animals that is caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the stratum corneum of the skin. In the early stages of scabies, symptoms are often subclinical and there are no effective diagnostic methods. Herein, we cloned, expressed and characterised an S. scabiei protein tyrosine kinase (SsPTK) and evaluated its diagnostic value as a recombinant antigen in rabbit during the early stages of Sarcoptes infestation. The SsPTK protein is ~30?kDa, lacks a signal peptide, and shares high homology with a PTK from the rabbit ear mite Psoroptes ovis cuniculi. The protein was widely distributed at the front end of mites, particularly in the chewing mouthparts and legs. Indirect ELISA using recombinant SsPTK showed good diagnostic value, with 95.2% (40/42) sensitivity and 94.1% (48/51) specificity for detecting anti-PTK antibody in serum samples from naturally-infested rabbits. More importantly, PTK ELISA could diagnose infection in the early stages (infestation for 1 week) with an accuracy of 100% (24/24). SsPTK therefore shows potential as a sensitive antigen for the early diagnosis of parasitic mite infestation.

Pol J Vet Sci. 2017 Sep 26;20(3):521-525. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29166286
A trial of doramectin injection and ivermectin spot-on for treatment of rabbits artificially infested with the ear mite “Psoroptes cuniculi”.
Elhawary NM, Sorour SSGH, El-Abasy MA, Bazh EK, Sultan K.
Abstract
The ear mite “Psoroptes cuniculi” is the main cause of ear mange, a highly contagious parasitic skin disease in rabbits all over the world. In the current work, a preliminary therapeutic trial to study the effect of the broad use acaricides doramectin and ivermectin on P. cuniculi was performed on artificially infested rabbits. Twenty five adult New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were assigned randomly into five groups/ 5 rabbits in each group. Each rabbit was experimentally infested with 100 mites/ ear. The first group was designated the positive control group and was not treated. The second and third groups were treated with doramectin 200 and 400 µg/kg bw, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 were treated by dressing with ivermectin in one dose and 2 doses with a 1 week interval. After the therapy, all rabbits were examined microscopically on the 7th, 14th, and 28th day post treatment and the number of live mites (larvae, nymphs, and adults) on each rabbit was counted at the end of the experiment (28th day). The results showed that the rabbits treated subcutaneously with doramectin at a single dose of 200 µg /kg bw showed a very low effect, although there was significant improvement when the dose was doubled to 400 µg /kg bw, with the number of mites counted decreasing significantly. Rabbits treated topically with ivermectin spot-on, a single dose or 2 doses, showed great improvement of the lesion: the number of mites was reduced to zero. In conclusion, this work showed that ivermectin spot-on applied locally on infested ears proves to be more effective against P. cuniculi than doramectin injected subcutaneously. Further trials on ear mange therapeutics in rabbits are to be encouraged.

Drug Deliv. 2017 Nov;24(1):622-631. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28282989
Sustained release ivermectin-loaded solid lipid dispersion for subcutaneous delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Lu M, Xiong D, Sun W, Yu T, Hu Z, Ding J, Cai Y, Yang S, Pan B.
Abstract
This work aimed to develop a sustained release solid dispersion of ivermectin (IVM-SD) in a lipid matrix (hydrogenated castor oil, HCO) for subcutaneous delivery. Solvent-melting technology was employed to prepare IVM-SDs using HCO. The physicochemical properties of the IVM-SDs were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The release of IVM from IVM-SDs was evaluated with HPLC in vitro. Pharmacokinetics of IVM was studied in rabbits following a single subcutaneous administration of IVM-SD formulations. The efficacy of IVM-SD against the ear mange mite was evaluated in rabbits. IVM was completely dispersed in HCO in an amorphous state at a drug:carrier ratio lower than 1:3. No chemical interactions between drug and carrier were found besides hydrogen bonding for the amorphous IVM-SDs. The amorphous IVM-SDs formulations exhibited a sustained release of IVM versus physical mixtures (PMs) of IVM and HCO. The drug release decreased as the drug:carrier ratios decreased, and the release kinetics of IVM were controlled via diffusion. Cytotoxicity of IVM-SD to MDCK cells was lower than native IVM. The IVM plasma concentration of SD1:3 remained above 1?ng/mL for 49 d. Higher AUC, MRT, and Tmax values were obtained at a SD1:3 relative to the IVM group. The IVM-SD improved almost 1.1-fold bioavailability of drug compared with IVM in rabbits. IVM-SD could provide longer persistence against rabbit’s ear mites than a commercial IVM injection. This study shows that these solid lipid dispersions are a promising approach for the development of subcutaneous IVM formulations.

Acta Parasitol. 2018 Mar 26;63(1):210-213. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29351061
The first case of Leporacarus gibbus infestation in a rabbit from Poland.
Zygner W, Gójska-Zygner O.
Abstract
This case report presents asymptomatic infestation with Leporacarus gibbus (formerly Listrophorus gibbus) in a pet rabbit. This is the first report of L. gibbus infestation in a pet rabbit from Poland. Previously, infestation in Poland had been detected only in hares.

Front Microbiol. 2018 May 25;9:1024. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29887838
Serodiagnostic Potential of Alpha-Enolase From Sarcoptes scabiei and Its Possible Role in Host-Mite Interactions.
Xu J, Huang X, Dong X, Ren Y,4, Wu M, Shen N, Xie Y, Gu X, Lai W, Jing B, Peng X, Yang G.
Abstract
Infestation of the epidermis with the highly contagious ectoparasite, Sarcoptes scabiei, causes scabies, which is characterized by intense itching, pruritus, and secondary infection. This condition affects humans, livestock, and wildlife worldwide, incurring large economic losses and reducing the quality of human life. In the present study, we cloned the alpha-enolase, a key enzyme in the glycolytic and gluconeogenesis pathways, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi, characterized it and produced soluble recombinant enolase protein (rSsc-eno). We determined the localization of Ssc-eno in isolated mites and mites in lesioned skin. The results showed that native enolase was intensely localized in the tegument of the mouthparts, the entire legs, and the whole mites’ body, as well as in the gut and reproduction system. Interestingly, we found that native enolase was widely distributed in mites in lesioned skin, with obvious high protein intensity compared with isolated mites. Building on good immunoreactivity, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on rSsc-eno showed 92% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity, compared with other indirect ELISA in this study, rSsc-eno based ELISA is better in detecting scabies in rabbits. Besides, this method can detect S. scabiei infection as early as 1 week post infection. Compared with other detection methods, such as traditional microscopic examination and recently published universal conventional PCR, rSsc-eno ELISA was more effective to detect early infection in rabbits. Additionally, in vitro incubation experiments demonstrated the concentration-dependent acaricidal activity of rabbit anti-rSsc-eno sera against larval mites, suggested its potential as a vaccine candidate.

Parasitology. 2018 May;145(6):752-761. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29113603
Identification of a novel PYP-1 gene in Sarcoptes scabiei and its potential as a serodiagnostic candidate by indirect-ELISA.
Xu J, Huang X, He M, Ren Y, Shen N, Li C, He R, Xie Y, Gu X, Jing B, Peng X, Yang G.
Abstract
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites. Based on its good immunoreactivity, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant Ssc-PYP-1 (rSsc-PYP-1) as the capture antigen was developed to diagnose sarcoptic mange in naturally infected rabbits; the assay had a sensitivity of 92·0% and specificity of 93·6%. Finally, using the rSsc-PYP-1-ELISA, the Ssc-PYP-1 antibody from 10 experimentally infected rabbits could be detected from 1 week post-infection. This is the first report of S. scabiei inorganic pyrophosphatase and the protein could serve as a potential serodiagnostic candidate for sarcoptic mange in rabbits.

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 20;11(1):599. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30454025
A chitinase-like protein from Sarcoptes scabiei as a candidate anti-mite vaccine that contributes to immune protection in rabbits.
Shen N, Zhang H, Ren Y, He R, Xu J, Li C, Lai W, Gu X, Xie Y, Peng X, Yang G.
Abstract
Scabies is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the stratum corneum of the host’s skin and is detrimental to the health of humans and animals. Vaccines are an attractive alternative to replace the acaricides currently used in their control. In the present study, the S. scabiei chitinase-like protein 5 (SsCLP5) was characterized and recombinant SsCLP5 (rSsCLP5) was evaluated as a candidate vaccine protein for anti-mite protection in rabbits. The expression, characterization and immunolocalization of SsCLP5 were examined. Vaccination experiments were performed on three test groups (n = 12 per group) immunized with purified rSsCLP5. Control groups (n = 12 per group) were immunized with PBS, QuilA saponin or empty vector protein. After challenge, the inflammatory reaction and skin lesions were graded and rSsCLP5 indirect ELISA was used to detect antibody IgG levels in serum samples at the time of vaccination and post-challenge. The results showed that rSsCLP5 had high immunoreactivity and immunogenicity. In S. scabiei, SsCLP5 had a wide distribution in the chewing mouthpart, legs and exoskeleton, especially the outer layer of the exoskeleton. Vaccination with rSsCLP5 resulted in 74.3% (26/35) of rabbits showing no detectable lesions after challenge with S. scabiei. Our data demonstrate that rSsCLP5 is a promising candidate for a recombinant protein-based vaccine against S. scabiei. This study also provides a method for studying scabies vaccine using rabbit as an animal model and a basis for screening more effective candidate proteins.

Vet Dermatol. 2018 Dec;29(6):522-e174. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30191614
Prevalence and zoonotic risk of tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in exotic companion mammals in southern Italy.
d’Ovidio D, Noviello E, Santoro D.
Abstract
Exotic companion mammals are popular pets worldwide. They are a potential source of zoonotic infections transmissible to their owners. To determine the prevalence and zoonotic risks of tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in exotic companion mammals in Italy. The records of 782 exotic pet mammals seen in multiple veterinary clinics (n = 20), pet shops (n = 10) and private breeders (n = 2) around Naples (Italy) were searched. The isolation of O. bacoti was the only inclusion criterion. Relative (in the subgroups) and absolute prevalence (in the entire population sampled) of clinical signs in pets and owners were calculated. The prevalence of clinical signs in pets and their owners was also calculated based on their housing (pet shops versus private housing) using Fisher’s exact test. A P-value  0.05 was considered significant. Seventy seven records (9.8%) of animals infested were identified. Of those, 33.8% (26 of 77) were hamsters, 25.9% (20 of 77) gerbils, 11.7% (nine of 77) guinea pigs, 7.8% (six of 77) rabbits, 7.8% (six of 77) degus, 5.2% (four of 77) kangaroo mice, 2.6% (two of 77) hedgehogs, 2.6% (two of 77) squirrels and 2.6% (two of 77) were sugar gliders. The frequency of owners affected by the rat mite dermatitis was very high in gerbils (20 of 20), hamsters (21 of 26) and guinea pigs (seven of nine). The results of the present survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as an active reservoir for O. bacoti infestation. The results of this study also suggest a lack of species specificity for O. bacoti when favourable conditions are present (overcrowding).

Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2018 Dec;44(12):2000-2004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30058406
A single subcutaneous administration of a sustained-release ivermectin suspension eliminates Psoroptes cuniculi infection in a rabbit farm.
Lu M, Cai Y, Yang S, Wan Q, Pan B.
Abstract
Psoroptes cuniculi mites are the most common ear parasites infesting breeding female rabbits. The suffering rabbits show cutaneous signs of the infestation in the ears and are prone to secondary infections. This trial was conducted to eliminate P. cuniculi in farm rabbits with a sustained-release ivermectin-loaded solid dispersion suspension (IVM-SD) suspension, and studied the stability of the formulation. There were 986 breeding female Hyplus rabbits naturally infected with P. cuniculi. All rabbits infected with P. cuniculi were subcutaneously administered with a single dose of IVM-SD suspension at 2?mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven rabbits with severe infections were observed daily and examined on days 0 and 14 to score the lesions and count mites in crusts. Fourteen days after the treatment no live mites were detected, demonstrating 100% therapeutic efficacy. The mean lesion scores decreased from 4.33 to 0.11 in the left ears and from 4.22 to 0.22 in the right ears. No reinfection occurred within 60?days of treatment. A single subcutaneous administration of the IVM-SD suspension at 2?mg/kg was effective in eliminating P. cuniculi infection in the rabbit farm.

 

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